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Calcite mineral beneficiation

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Physical Separations are those processes where valued substances are separated from undesired substances based on the physical properties of the materials. They include solid-solid and solid-liquid separations. Efficiency in physical separations can be viewed as an overall system efficiency, from the prepared mineral and resulting in a separated product. Typical physical separation processes and their definitions include:


Flotation - Mineral separation, in which a variety of reagents are added to an agitated and aerated mixture of liquids and solids. This causes certain finely crushed minerals to adhere to air bubbles and to rise to the surface where they enter a froth, leaving the remaining minerals behind.


Dewatering - Separates solid materials from water in which it is dispersed, performed by equipment such as thickeners, classifiers, hydrocyclones, filters, and centrifuges.


Thickening or Settling - Reduces the proportion of water in a material by means of sedimentation or elutriation.


Filtering - Separates suspended solid particles from liquids, or fine dust from air.


Drying - Removes water using air or heat.


Flocculation - Selective agglomeration, or adhesion of material components to water or other immicible liquids. In this process, loosely bonded associations of particles and bubbles are formed that are lighter than water.


Screening - The uses of one or more screens or sieves to separate particles into defined sizes.

• Magnetic Separation - The uses of permanent or electromagnets to separate magnetic particles from other process streams.


• Classification - The separation of particles of various sizes, densities, and shapes through their movement in a fluid. Includes centrifugal separation.


Washing - Removes ash, shale, sulfur, and other unwanted products from crushed material using water.