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Coal processing plant

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Coal processing equipment

The extraction of coal typically results in the recovery of unwanted rock that ranges from small to very large quantities depending on seam thickness and other characteristics. Deshaling is the process of removing unwanted rock from run-of-mine coal. In some areas of the United States, large quantities of rock are being extracted in order to recover the coal, reportedly resulting in 60%-70% of the raw material being rejected as waste. The haulage, processing, pumping, and storage of the rock represent significant energy inefficiency and have negative environmental impact.

Coal processing

Fire and explosion hazards generated by process operations include the accidental release of SynGas (containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen), oxygen, methanol, and ammonia. High pressure SynGas releases may cause “Jet Fires” or give rise to a Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE), “Fireball” or “Flash Fire,” depending on the quantity of flammable material involved and the degree of confinement of the cloud. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases may ignite even in the absence of ignition sources if they temperatures of 500°C and 609°C, respectively. Flammable liquid spills may cause “Pool Fires.” Recommended measures to prevent and control fire and explosion risks from process operations include the following: Provide early release detection, such as pressure monitoring of gas and liquid conveyance systems, in addition to smoke and heat detection for fires; · Limit potential releases by isolating process operations from large storage inventories; · Avoid potential ignition sources (e.g., by configuring piping layouts to avoid spills over high temperature piping, equipment, and / or rotating machines); · Control the potential effect of fires or explosions by segregating and using separation distances between process, storage, utility, and safe areas. Safe distances can be derived from specific safety analyses for the facility, and through application of internationally recognized fire safety standards;